QEMU for ARM supports a special ‘virt’ machine designed for emulation and virtualization purposes. This document describes how to run U-Boot under it. Both 32-bit ARM and AArch64 are supported.
The ‘virt’ platform provides the following as the basic functionality:
A freely configurable amount of CPU cores
U-Boot loaded and executing in the emulated flash at address 0x0
A generated device tree blob placed at the start of RAM
A freely configurable amount of RAM, described by the DTB
A PL011 serial port, discoverable via the DTB
An ARMv7/ARMv8 architected timer
PSCI for rebooting the system
A generic ECAM-based PCI host controller, discoverable via the DTB
Additionally, a number of optional peripherals can be added to the PCI bus.
See Devicetree in QEMU for information on how to see the devicetree actually generated by QEMU.
Set the CROSS_COMPILE environment variable as usual, and run:
make qemu_arm_defconfig make
make qemu_arm64_defconfig make
The minimal QEMU command line to get U-Boot up and running is:
qemu-system-arm -machine virt -nographic -bios u-boot.bin
qemu-system-aarch64 -machine virt -nographic -cpu cortex-a57 -bios u-boot.bin
Note that for some odd reason qemu-system-aarch64 needs to be explicitly told to use a 64-bit CPU or it will boot in 32-bit mode. The -nographic argument ensures that output appears on the terminal. Use Ctrl-A X to quit.
Additional persistent U-boot environment support can be added as follows:
Create envstore.img using qemu-img:
qemu-img create -f raw envstore.img 64M
Add a pflash drive parameter to the command line:
Additional peripherals that have been tested to work in both U-Boot and Linux can be enabled with the following command line parameters:
To add a Serial ATA disk via an Intel ICH9 AHCI controller, pass e.g.:
-drive if=none,file=disk.img,format=raw,id=mydisk \ -device ich9-ahci,id=ahci -device ide-drive,drive=mydisk,bus=ahci.0
To add an Intel E1000 network adapter, pass e.g.:
-netdev user,id=net0 -device e1000,netdev=net0
To add an EHCI-compliant USB host controller, pass e.g.:
To add an NVMe disk, pass e.g.:
-drive if=none,file=disk.img,id=mydisk -device nvme,drive=mydisk,serial=foo
To add a random number generator, pass e.g.:
These have been tested in QEMU 2.9.0 but should work in at least 2.5.0 as well.
Enabling TPMv2 support¶
To emulate a TPM the swtpm package may be used. It can be built from the following repositories:
Swtpm provides a socket for the TPM emulation which can be consumed by QEMU.
In a first console invoke swtpm with:
swtpm socket --tpmstate dir=/tmp/mytpm1 \ --ctrl type=unixio,path=/tmp/mytpm1/swtpm-sock --log level=20
In a second console invoke qemu-system-aarch64 with:
-chardev socket,id=chrtpm,path=/tmp/mytpm1/swtpm-sock \ -tpmdev emulator,id=tpm0,chardev=chrtpm \ -device tpm-tis-device,tpmdev=tpm0
Enable the TPM on U-Boot’s command line with:
tpm2 startup TPM2_SU_CLEAR
The debug UART on the ARM virt board uses these settings:
CONFIG_DEBUG_UART=y CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_PL010=y CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_BASE=0x9000000 CONFIG_DEBUG_UART_CLOCK=0